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The Fourth R
By Maryann DiEdwardo


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INTRODUCTION
La cuarta “R”
Estudios latinoamericanos e hispanos. Investigación sobre programas de estudio, paradigmas y estructuras
Por
la Dra. Maryann Pasda DiEdwardo
The Fourth “R”
Latin American and Latino Studies, An Inquiry into Curriculum Models, Paradigms, and Frameworks
By
Dr. Maryann Pasda DiEdwardo


From Three “R”s to Four “R”s
Teach courage based upon oral histories!
Journey through time to develop language skills. As cultures converge in global 21st century classroom, students of multiethnic backgrounds require varied models to succeed. Reading, writing, and arithmetic which served our industrial society may be enhanced by a new fourth “R” or remembrance as educational focus for the age of technology and multiculturalism. Language is the basis of classrooms whether traditional, enhanced or distance. In fact, Howard Gardner, in Frames of Mind (1983 page 78), regards the “rhetorical aspects of language as the ability to use language to convince other individuals of a course of action; the mnemonic potential of language to help one remember information; the role of language in explanation and the potential of language to explain and reflect on itself as in metalinguistic analysis.” Language based upon oral history can connect cultures in classrooms.
Clearly, the fourth “R’ based upon language as essential to learning functions of language and engage students. Definition of the Fourth “R” and Fourth “R’ Curriculum Models present educators with
studies in literature as the voice of culture ringing the songs of change. Latin American Literature is such a genre. L
et us examine an educational framework for all cultures and expand from what exists on the page within three R’s to what can exist with imagination and fortitude to testimonial or fourth “R”. Teach courage based upon oral histories!




Definition of the Fourth “R”
The fourth “R” contains multicultural focus on Latin American and Latino Studies with an emphasis on testimonials and opportunity to forge a new genre filled with a plethora of emotionally charged ideas. Statistical results of research have suggested that the themes connected to the new emerging genre are grounded in theory that language promotes learning in multicultural settings. Cultural understanding of individual learning methods precipitates the fourth “R” paradigm to present history through language form as framework. Rooted in educational theory based upon Hispanic literary traditions of transformative voices through oral and written personal histories imagined through paradigms such as family and faith, my original framework echoes student memory. Once engaged, memory initiates writing process. In enhanced, traditional or distance K-post graduate classroom, historical memoir writing creates students’ voices.
Fourth “R’ Curriculum Models
The fourth “R” model explores Latin American and Latino Studies impacting upon major literary collections with poetry, drama and fiction about personal rights, dignity and freedom paramount to the establishment of an understanding of the human condition. Literary topics apply to technology enhanced, distance and traditional elementary through college classrooms. Start with the study of genre to teach writers of all ages who express their voices through their own oral histories. Consequently, the field of Latin American and Latino Studies witrh the focus on oral histories offers the educator new themes for classroom investigations that permeate the threads of thematic works. Execute dialogues about personal rights, dignity and freedom paramount to the establishment of an understanding of the human condition through literary topics.
New research organizations such as Latin American Network Information Center LANIC's facilitate access to Internet-based information to, from, or on Latin America. With resources are designed to facilitate research and academic endeavors, the virtual library site has also become an important gateway to Latin America for primary and secondary school teachers and students, private and public sector professionals, and just about anyone looking for information about this important region.
A NEW GENRE


Latin Americans and Latinos inspire through historical memoir writing, the first and most important component in the fourth “R” curriculum model. For instance, in the work Latinos Remaking America, the editors list 1. Familism (Martin and Martin); 2. Latino Corporate Identity; 3. Latino Unity as primary paradigms (Suarez-Orozco and Paez 2002.) The scope and function of Latin American and Latino Literature validly adds to our multicultural vision of literature as a transamerican platform within the models of academic clarity through fluid transformative voices through oral and written personal histories, paradigms such as family and faith.

Consider Latin American and Latino cultural heritage for the fourth “R” curriculum. A timeline of Latino Historical and cultural events from 1492 to the present is reviewed in publications of Latino Studies in such works as the following: Acuna, Rodolfo. 1988. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. New York: Harper Collins; Anzaldia, Gloria. 1987. Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Spinsters Aunt Lute Book Company; Brown, David. 2003. Santeria Enthroned. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Moreover, new scholarly works in the field include Marc Zimmerman 's U. S. Latino Literature, An Essay and Annotated Bibliography commissioned by a Director's Discretionary Grant from the Illinois Humanities Council, with support from the National Endowment of the Humanities. The intention was to update and highlight the growing Chicago and Illinois contribution to a burgeoning literary corpus. Zimmerman explains that "the bibliography itself was specifically designed for new readers of Latino literature. I have tried to include most of the major works, or at least one or more representative works, by each of the more important or successful writers." Other scholars question the validity of works within the new genre. For example, Eva Paulino Bueno explores the peculiarities of the reception of some testimonial texts in the North American University.
Current models include The Smithsonian Institution which has been active in forming National Events to establish Latino Studies. For example, “ ‘The Interpretation and Representation of Latino Cultures: Research and Museums’ National Conference at the Smithsonian Institution took place during November 20 to 23, 2002 in Washington, D.C… scholars in Latino studies, archivists, and museum professionals …examin[ed] the current status of research and educational literature on the interpretation, representation, and documentation of Latino cultures in museums and academic programs within the United States and Puerto Rico… Conference sessions reflected the interdisciplinary field of Latino research and a variety of approaches to the interpretation and representation of material and expressive cultural practices (Magdalena Mieri from the Center for Latino Initiatives). Magdalena Mieri, Conference Organizer, explains that the content of lectures explored answers to the following questions: “Who are we as Latinos portrayed in museums? Who are we, in the museums, or in academia to decide or “define” that? How can we be best advocates for inclusion when our stories are ignored? What are the many messages imbedded in cultural materials? How can we best record/register cultural practices? And who and how are they going to be de-codified? What are the stories that objects, images, people care about? Which ones should we place in museums?”
Historical Importance of Oral Histories
Historically, our national museum focuses on emerging cultural issues that formulate the fourth “R.” On February 18, 2004 - April 25, 2004 at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Our Journeys / Our Stories: Portraits of Latino Achievement explored the diversity of the Latino experience in the United States through stories and portraits of men and women who have led extraordinary lives. Twenty-five newly commissioned portraits were displayed. The works depicted Nobel laureates, scientists, artists, athletes, entrepreneurs, politicians, community activists, and people from all walks of life. Stories of Latino achievement, self-discovery, and roots and traditions were celebrated in biographical highlights and excerpts from recent oral history interviews were conducted by the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives. These inspirational narratives explored how the 25 featured Latinos pursued their goals, were inspired by their forebears, or mentored others. Oral histories are the voices of the disenfranchised—the famous and the lesser known. Artists, musicians, laborers, survivors, immigrants, and students are just a few of the silent people to whom oral histories give voice. Groups whose stories otherwise might remain unnoticed—the illiterate, common people and others who rarely see their stories published—can finally be heard through oral histories.




Literature is the voice of culture ringing the songs of change. Latin
American Literature is such a genre.

Clearly, Latin American and Latino Studies offers opportunity to forge a new genre filled with a plethora of emotionally charged ideas. Statistical results of research have suggested that the themes connected to the new emerging genre are grounded in theory and can be applied to K-graduate traditional, enhanced and distance classrooms globally. “Latinos in the United States are a composite of diverse historical realities, national experiences, and collective existential traumas (Torres-Saillant 435).” Stanford University Press Latin American Studies Book Award 2005 is The Guaraní under Spanish Rule in the Río de la Plata. Winner of the 2005 Book Prize, sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Section, Southern Historical Association. Barbara Ganson is the author. This ethnographic study is a revisionist view of the most significant and widely known mission system in Latin America—that of the Jesuit missions to the Guaraní Indians, who inhabited the border regions of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. It traces in detail the process of Indian adaptation to Spanish colonialism from the sixteenth through the early nineteenth centuries. The book demonstrates conclusively that the Guaraní were as instrumental in determining their destinies as were the Catholic Church and Spanish bureaucrats. They were neither passive victims of Spanish colonialism nor innocent “children” of the jungle, but important actors who shaped fundamentally the history of the Río de la Plata region. The Guaraní responded to European contact according to the dynamics of their own culture, their individual interests and experiences, and the changing political, economic, and social realities of the late Bourbon period.
FOURTH “R” Based Upon Latino Literature is Bicultural
“Although plots and characters may be centered on the U.S. side of the border, Latin American cultural attitudes and traditions are present beneath the surface of characters’ personalities, provoking their actions and emotions (Christie and Gonzalez 2). The style mirrors the efforts Latino writers make as they construct identities form the fragmented and changing world around them (Christie and Gonzalez 9). As readers of Latin American Literature, we must do more than understand U.S. history. We must see the same events from a Latin American point of view and rewrite history. Visit alternative perspectives on religious beliefs, economic status, and the role of women. Latino writing stretches the reader’s imagination across cultural borders.
The events of Latino history sometimes repressed, certainly neglected, and often rewritten by mainstream sources are continually surfacing as scholars explore the records and oral histories of the hidden past. As Latinos reimagine the past, they will present the issues from new angles. Through personal memoir, realistic prose, magical narrative, or transgenre form as yet unrecognized, Latino writers will find surprising and dynamic new avenues for their fictional expression of Latino culture.



Fourth “R” Framework

My original framework initiates with a student directed classroom exercise based upon a collection of appropriate works of Hispanic Literary Tradition including African American, Native American, and Latino/Latina Studies.

Suggested Reading includes the following: Fiction, Autobiography, Magical Realism, Short Fiction, Fragmented Stories,

Testimonials, Scholarly Publications, Poetry,

Historical Fiction, Documentary.



Maryann DiEdwardo Original Framework 1. Identify Transcendent Qualities 2. Organize Topic into Narrative Structure 3. Write Histories of Students 4. Write Oral Histories of Literary Figures 5. Presentations 6. Conclude 7. Evaluate Copyright c 2006 Maryann Pasda DiEdwardo

  1. Identify Transcendent Qualities Students possess qualities of memory based upon human every day experiences similar to those experiences within literary works they read. I play pod casts of sample student essays that show how students recall events or conditions based upon the relationship of reading to memory. For instance, one of my students recalls her own beliefs in mercy killing and relates her heritage based upon family and cultural beliefs in the right to life.

2. Organize Topic into Narrative Structure Students use life story writing next to recount experiences that may help them find thesis. With a combination of historical facts formulated through research or real life experiences and based upon prose writing process techniques such as clustering, outlining, and drafting, students of all ages intertwine personal oral history into written form to center their minds to write. Students of writing from K-adult learn to write based upon inherent knowledge. When students learn to use their own voices, they interpret assignments with fresh views and confident attitudes.

3. Write Histories of Students Life story writing can fit into our English classes as we are guided by quests of those who have come before us; we accomplish meaningful tasks in life so we have a sense of purpose. Therefore, we can write about topics presented in English class through a life story perspective. Begin an essay with story. Filter the story as a metaphor throughout the essay or research paper.


4. Write Oral Histories of Literary Figures
Literature is the voice of culture ringing the songs of change. Latin American Literature is such a genre. “Latinos in the United States are a composite of diverse historical realities, national experiences, and collective existential tramas (Torres-Saillant 435).” Stanford University Press Latin Amercian Studies Book Award 2005http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?book_id=%205495%20

Barbara Ganson’s The Guaraní under Spanish Rule in the Río de la PlataWinner of the 2005 Book Prize, sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Section, Southern Historical Association. This ethnographic study is a revisionist view of the most significant and widely known mission system in Latin America—that of the Jesuit missions to the Guaraní Indians, who inhabited the border regions of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. It traces in detail the process of Indian adaptation to Spanish colonialism from the sixteenth through the early nineteenth centuries. The book demonstrates conclusively that the Guaraní were as instrumental in determining their destinies as were the Catholic Church and Spanish bureaucrats.
They were neither passive victims of Spanish colonialism nor innocent “children” of the jungle, but important actors who shaped fundamentally the history of the Río de la Plata region. The Guaraní responded to European contact according to the dynamics of their own culture, their individual interests and experiences, and the changing political, economic, and social realities of the late Bourbon period.

Resources include University of Milwaukee Center for Latin American and Latino Studieshttp://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CLACS/outreach/americas.html
listservehttp://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CLACS/listserv.html
Latina/o Literature and Literature of the Americas at the University of Northern Colorado http://asweb.unco.edu/latina/





4. Write Oral Histories of Literary Figures
Text Box:Major Latino Dramatists, Film Directors, Screenplay Writers•    Patricia Cardoso•    Gary Nava•    Josephina Lopez•    Jose RiveraMajor Latino Essayists•    Jose Antonio Burciago•    Gloria Anzaldua•    Judith Cofer•    Richard Rodriguez•    Luis Alberto UrreaMajor Latino Novelists•    Alex Abella•    Julia Alvarez•    Rudolfo Anaya•    Alba Ambert•    Ron Arias•    Raymond Barrio•    Sandra Benitez•    H.G. Carrillo•    Elena Castedo•    Ana Castillo•    Daniel Chacon•    Daniel Cano•    Denise Chavez•    Sandra Cisneros•    Angie Cruz•    Debra Diaz•    Junot Diaz•    Roberta Fernandez•    Roberto G. Fernandez•    Rosario Ferre•    Montserrat Fontes•    Cristina Garcia•    Guy Garcia•    Dagoberto Gilb•    Francisco Goldman•    Rigoberto Gonzalez•    Oscar Hijuelos•    Rolando Hinojosa•    Arturo Islas•    Ivonne Lamazares•    Graciela Limon•    Diana Lopez•    Jaime Manrique•    Demetria Martinez•    Luis Manuel Martinez•    Pablo Medina•    Ana Menendez•    Ernesto Mestre-Reed•    Nicholasa Mohr•    Alejandro Morales•    Achy Obejas•    Judith Ortiz Cofer•    Himilce Novas•    Loida Maritza Perez•    Gustavo Perez Firmat•    Cecile Pineda•    Estela Portillo Trambley•    Ernesto Quinones•    John Rechy•    Tomas Rivera•    Abraham Rodriguez•    Nelly Rosario•    Benjamin Alire Saenz•    Gary Soto•    Francisco X Stork•    Virgil Suarez•    Piri Thomas•    Hector Tobar•    Carla Trujillo•    Alfredo Vea•    Edgardo Vega Yunqe•    Helena Maria Viramontes
Text Box:Major Latino Dramatists, Film Directors, Screenplay Writers• Patricia Cardoso• Gary Nava• Josephina Lopez• Jose RiveraMajor Latino Essayists• Jose Antonio Burciago• Gloria Anzaldua• Judith Cofer• Richard Rodriguez• Luis Alberto UrreaMajor Latino Novelists• Alex Abella• Julia Alvarez• Rudolfo Anaya• Alba Ambert• Ron Arias• Raymond Barrio• Sandra Benitez• H.G. Carrillo• Elena Castedo• Ana Castillo• Daniel Chacon• Daniel Cano• Denise Chavez• Sandra Cisneros• Angie Cruz• Debra Diaz• Junot Diaz• Roberta Fernandez• Roberto G. Fernandez• Rosario Ferre• Montserrat Fontes• Cristina Garcia• Guy Garcia• Dagoberto Gilb• Francisco Goldman• Rigoberto Gonzalez• Oscar Hijuelos• Rolando Hinojosa• Arturo Islas• Ivonne Lamazares• Graciela Limon• Diana Lopez• Jaime Manrique• Demetria Martinez• Luis Manuel Martinez• Pablo Medina• Ana Menendez• Ernesto Mestre-Reed• Nicholasa Mohr• Alejandro Morales• Achy Obejas• Judith Ortiz Cofer• Himilce Novas• Loida Maritza Perez• Gustavo Perez Firmat• Cecile Pineda• Estela Portillo Trambley• Ernesto Quinones• John Rechy• Tomas Rivera• Abraham Rodriguez• Nelly Rosario• Benjamin Alire Saenz• Gary Soto• Francisco X Stork• Virgil Suarez• Piri Thomas• Hector Tobar• Carla Trujillo• Alfredo Vea• Edgardo Vega Yunqe• Helena Maria Viramontes
Framework I

5. Presentations Storytelling is the highest order of language as it is the kind of tradition which makes myths important. If students write stories, select those that are vivid, and include them as journey idea s in papers, they are finding their own voices to begin their own writing path and their own “hero or heroine journey.” As students write their own stories and come to see that they too have pleasures and pains, fears and fantasies, like more noble heroes and heroines, students are prepared to see challenges taking shape in their papers and research assignments.

6. Conclude Students weigh and assess challenges as every hero or heroine must do throughout history. In essence, students are starting their own historical journeys into the world of literature where adjectives, adverbs, balance, belief, central character thesis or character, dialogue, distance, intimacy, inner monologue, inner world, narrative, narrator, outer world, person, point of view, voice, tone, theme, style, imagery, self-criticism, self-doubt, tense, verbs, parallelism ignite the inner journey toward a clear student writer voice.
7. Evaluate. Ultimately, writing is a personal journey determined by the students mind, spirit, emotional ability to try to find a voice and to hear the inner voice and listen. Therefore, writers listen to their own voices first then place the answers on the page.


Questions for Discussions:

How does the author develop cultural milieu?

Does the author advance the where, why, and how of the setting, historical, elements?

Does the character change your perspective of the period?

Does the story echo your reality?

How does a fiction work written during a different time period foreshadow current social or political issues?

Students will be able to weigh and assess their challenges as they recall heroines or heroes throughout history. In essence, writing students are starting their own historical journeys into the world of literature where adjectives, adverbs, diction, thesis, point of view, voice, tone, theme, style, imagery, language, verbs, parallelism ignite the inner journey toward a clear student writer voice.

Conclusively, American and Latino Studies offers opportunity to forge a new genre filled with a plethora of emotionally charged ideas. Statistical results of research have suggested that themes connected to new emerging genre grounded in theory and can be applied to K-graduate traditional, enhanced and distance classrooms globally. Through techniques based upon Hispanic Literary Tradition, students will be able to weigh and assess their own historical journeys into the world of literature. “Latinos have advanced the cause of human justice by stretching the working definition of citizenship, as they mark their difference from the dominant society and also mark their legitimate place inside the country…How does one imagine a future without the help of narratives? And how does one imagine possibilities without the risks of juxtapositions and relationships that characterize language arts? Along with other scholars I recommend that we all grasp opportunities to tell productive, democratic, creative stories abou the future-to fulfill the promise of a flexible and capacious America (Summer 460).”



References

Brown, David. 2003. Santeria Enthroned. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press.
Anzaldia, Gloria. 1987. Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San
Francisco: Spinsters Aunt Lute Book Company.

Bueno, Eva Paulino. 1999. "Carolina Maria de Jesus in the Context of Testimonios: Race, Sexuality, and Exclusion." Criticism.

Christie, John and Gonzalez, Jose. 2006. Latino Boom. An Anthology of U.S. Latino Literature. New York: Pearson.

Ganson Barbara. 2005. The Guaraní under Spanish Rule in the Río de la Plata. Stanford University Press Latin Amercian Studies Book Award http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?book_id=%205495%20 Winner of the 2005 Book Prize, sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Section, Southern Historical Association.
Gardner, Howard. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Perseus Books.

Latin American Network Information Center. 2006. Online Virtual Library.
Online. Available. Date of Access July 18, 2006.
//http://lanic.utexas.edu/las.html//